T171 TMA 03.

Part 1

The continent list .

* Introduction.

* The internet.

* TCP/IP protocol and why we have it as a protocol.

* TCP/IP is a bridge for others.

* Conclusion.

TCP/IP this word what have made it so important to us. We shell see, the important of it in the filed of internet, and why it is a protocol. Inside the WWW the net we use nearly every day. There are so mach things hiding that we don know. But in the coming prevue I'll start with the internet description, and then go to the protocols built for the net. After word I'll describe the need for the TCP/IP protocol, what dos it made of or for what it's made. And I conclude this word with the path of our future, even really no one really knows if it is or not.

The internet.
The international network! WWW – World Wide Web – or the web! What aver is it's could, it's only a name, but when we ask about it we find it is the biggest network known to all today. This size and growth of it can't be with out basics. So the basics of this net are built like other networks. What is that? It is the networks protocols, and the most network protocol is the latest and this TMA is about it and its help in this growth and developments. The internet started as a small network made by ARPA by Larry Roberts, Bob Taylor and Wesley Clarke. And time sharing developed by J.C.R. Licklider, Under the US in The Could Ware between the US and soviet. But the first time-sharing computer was set up at MIT in 1957 by John McCarthy. The new changes have exceeded foreword for the networks day by day. So the US government asked to start it net in the digital ways. That started the search for a way of making the net so digital and less expansive. "So, Baran had the idea of sending messages in standard sized blocks which could be reassembled at the other end (like container Lorries taking cargo and goods). He proposed a system of 'hot potato routing' - a rapid store and forward routine which took in message blocks and passed them on as quickly as possible. Using an 'algorithm' (i.e. a computerized procedure) he devised a constantly updated table containing data about how many hops were needed for a message to reach every other node in the system. Baran's design for the system was completed in 1962 - 'a network of 1024 switching nodes which sent and received message-blocks via low power microwave transmitters mounted on small towers. Meanwhile; Somewhere in England, Davies's proposal for packet switching was remarkably similar - he specified that each data packet should contain data plus an additional check digit, a header and a sequence number. He gave a public lecture and published a paper outlining the design of the system in 1966. In 1967 he set up local area network of ten computers at NPL with Roger Scantlebury."
1( This network led them to circuit switching, and packet switching with its differences and advantages. They developed routers for this reasons and to get more speed by the sending messages and there best bath. In most of the internet servers they use packet switching; the ones how usually uses the circuit switching is the individual users from home by the telephone lines with modems. Now days the user of ADSL and home LAN and Receivers of Satellite dishes they uses packet switching to give more capacity to the net users. To this level the international network is not yet been born, but the idea is in its berth.

TCP/IP protocol and why we have it as a protocol.
The question that we all ask is: What is a Protocol? "A protocol is a set of rules which determine how two or more entities interact and communicate."
2 This is made because Company's, Corporations and Governments differences in building there one things as well as there ways. And what come between the peoples is the same between computers and servers. So when computers want to communicate to each another, they mast have the same way of communicating rules and language. You'll not speak to a fresh person if you don’t know fresh. The internets protocols are (inevitably) concerned with passing messages form your system to the other one. The pages of internet we can see on the screen are written by a message protocol that is known as (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTTP. So typically they will specify the format that a message must take, and the way in which computers must exchange a message within the context of a particular activity. These protocols are made as we need them like exchanging e-mail, establishing remote connections, or transferring files. And most of the famous protocols in the internet are Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP). For that we will need a pushing force. "A group of graduate students from different universities who were all working on the initial host sites met in 1968 to discuss how the finer details of the system would work. One of them, Steve Crocker, wrote up the gist of what they had discussed and sent it round with a label 'Request for Comments' (RFC). This became the style and format for the development of all the subsequent networking protocols and the group began calling itself the Network Working Group (NWG) VInt Cerf and Jon Postel were members of this original group."3 This step was enormous and led to the true growth of the network. It helped in pointing Domain Name Systems, which for internet led to local domain name systems, and led to slip the net to the world wide nations. This made the net grows huge way, other personals and companies want to enter. For each group the hade there ways. This minted so many networks on the way with out full progress. By time there is need for that help, the way of butting a path for the tow and more incompatible networks to work with each another even there is differences. It is the creation of the gateways that is a spatial computer transforming the information from a net protocol to another net's protocol. That what mostly made the massive growth of the internet that we see to day. So with out this protocols that been made – law's of communication – we may find that there is an individual path for each company, corporation and government and that it is impossible to connect the world widely as we can see by the world wide wed. For a simple example: apple fall from its closed system. That is the open system made the system cheaper and affordable for the individuals to bay it. TCP/IP was one of the grates to help in the start of connecting the computers to gather and in the gateways of connecting networks to gather. As an open source for all to know and use they used it and had it help in the long path the internet had crossed, and it will have it help in the coming years a had the internet to by more powerful, this way in this level of growth they are now studying a way to develop it to tike so mach more users around the globe. For notification protocols can by changed but by rules. This is to give more power when needed and in a certain time.

TCP/IP is a bridge for others.
Not only in the US, but around the world there are networks. But there is a problem in all of that; they are not compatible to each another. That ware the creation of gateways came. The TCP/IP played a big role in this.

4 : Please note that this photo is been taken from the raslan_T171 group, for using ask the group owner.
TCP/IP software is distributed within most OS. That is any computer that will connect the internet mast use the correct connecting language. All other protocols after the TCP/IP are like a messaging protocol. Like Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the page of the site on the internet, and to receive this page you really receive a message of text, as it is the source of that page, the browser is the wizard how show's the user what it look like. It is the same with File Transfer Protocol (FTP), but in this protocol throw the TCP/IP the user receive files from the internet. And as we sow in the previous picture nearly all internet applications uses the TCP/IP as a gate to reach the net directly or indirectly. Applications using an information transaction protocol from one or more of SMTP, HTTP, FTP or Telnet protocol. All are working in the application level and they need a transportation for there information. So in moving to the Transporter we find Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) along with Internet Protocol (IP) wire the IP known that it identifies the computer like a telephone number. The link goes on more than one link as we sew in the previous picture above. Now we under stand why it was could a gate in the first place.

The internet had a long way to reach the public, since the start of the network or its idea up today. The future of internet is unknown to all people around the world. An unstable net, grow faster than imagined, link over magical dreams. The TCP/IP lived in the hart of this net, and lifts it up to the level of today. TCP/IP as a bridge for the net, it made the connecting so fast. But late us not forget the ones how created this ideas in the path. They are the same as TCP/IP, bridges helped to lift the path of technologies. TCP/IP as an open source protocol helped the specialists to help us all to use the grate WWW all along. And now we her that the IP address are shorting out, there words of developing a more powerful TCP/IP along the path for the future.

Part 2

The continent list .
the web site: ZDnet.
* the search for: ZDnet.
* the web site: Internet.com.
* the search for: Internet.com.
* the web site: LinuxSecurity.com.
* the search for: LinuxSecurity.com.
* Conclusion.

ZDnet UK. In the URL: .
I found that this web site is gathering information abut the governments and there approach to participate in the growth of the Linux other Open Source programs in the world and on the net. It tray's to present what is best in its view, and speak of the Microsoft company and its expanding. That it may have every thing one day. It speak to The users in the world, and giving more than one subject telling in most of it that the open source is batter than the closed source.

The search summary.
In the search of the first web site I used
www.google.com, using the first step in asking for Linux Open Source. And it had provided me with so mach web sites abut Linux and Open Source, and the first web site was giving to me is a news web site form www.google.com it self as in the link http://news.google.com/news?q= linux+open+source&hl=en&lr=&sa= N&tab= nn&oi=newsr but it was not that affordable, that it was only a search news list. After word it gives me another address in the favor of Open source speaking abuts governments and the approach to the Open Source http://insight.zdnet.co.uk/ software/ 0,39020463,39237269,00.htm.

Internet.com's Linux/Open Channel in the URL:
That is a very big web site in my hand. In this web site I found a lot of information on the open source with a full channel for Linux and its users and how aver want to know abut it. News and tutorials for system administrators, a Resource for Embedded Linux Information, resources for PHP Developers, and offering an announcement list for the latest news and apaches tested to by known to the users and how good it is. This web site is a real universal university. It is giving guidance, education and help. I directly add it to my favorite web sites list with the C++ world.

The search summary.
Returning to
www.google.com search in the previous search there ware more than 162,000,000 that is connected with the information of Linux open source. And butting in the face the most searched for web sites. And I started with http://www.channelregister.co.uk/ 2005/11/17/ sun_solaris_postgres/ where I found that this web site speak abut other open sources and privileges users to use them, but with a little an understandably interface for my. Then I moved to the second web site were I found more information on the open source. http://www.internet.com/ sections/linux.html.

LinuxSecurity.com in the URL:
This web site speaks of the necessary security aliments of the open source and provides programs for the security of the Linux. The web site is more in its first view a news stand, for the latest news. And yes, the news is tolled by the site administration group borate from other sources like magazines or news networks. It is including information on how to use PHP and its security ways of information programming, and designing for Linux web browsing.

The search summary.
Returning to
www.google.com with my search looking for more web sites, in this time the www.google.com gave me http://www.osdl.org/ ticking me in to an organization group that is trying to protect the users of open source from unknown programmers. Than I moved to another web site http://www.linux.org/ named as Linux on line presenting information and patches for Linux form the Linux directly, those patches are gathered from some other web sites. Than I moved to http://opensource.creative.com/ a web site that give information for creative drivers only. Than I had to narrow my searches to add in the advance search in with the exact phrase adding the important thing for us all Linux security and it gave me this web site. http://www.linuxsecurity.com/.

By locking in those web sites I still have to study some aspects, in the mean time, I but a copy of the Red Hat Linux to see what it is.

With love to you all,

Abd-Alaziz Ale-Abd-Almohsen

Written in Saturday, November 19, 2005

Moving to the page's top. Going Back to Main Page.

1 - The source is: http://arabweb1.open.ac.uk/ t171/ module2/ section2/ switching-origins.cfm? DisplayMode= live&CFID= 98914&CFTOKEN= 79812474 and if there is changes by time or a password requested from you, call the AOU (Arab Open University ) for help.

2 - The source is: http://arabweb1.open.ac.uk/ t171/ module2/ section3/ protocols.cfm? DisplayMode= live&CFID= 98914&CFTOKEN= 79812474 and if there is changes by time or a password requested from you, call the AOU (Arab Open University ) for help.

3 - The source is: http://arabweb1.open.ac.uk/ t171/ module2/ section3/ protocols.cfm? DisplayMode= live&CFID= 98914&CFTOKEN= 79812474 and if there is changes by time or a password requested from you, call the AOU (Arab Open University ) for help.

4 - The source is: http://groups.yahoo.com/ group/ raslan_T171/ files/.